1. GOLDSBY, R.A., KINDT, T.J. AND OSBORNE, B.A.
W.H.FREEMAN AND COMPANY, 2000, pp.260-261, 503-504.
2. WENZEL, J., SANZENBACHER, R., GHADIMI, M., ZHOU, Q., KAPLAN, D.R.,
KABELITZ, D., FELLER, S.M. AND JANSSEN, O.
Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand:
hints for the reverse signal tranduction capacity of a death factor.
FEBS LETT. 509 255-262 (2001).
3. YANKEE, T.M., DRAVES, K.E., EWINGS, M.K., CLARK, E.A. AND GRAVES, J.D.
CD95/Fas induces cleavage of the GrpL/Gads adaptor and desensitization of
antigen receptor signaling.
PROC.NATL.ACAD.SCI.U.S.A. 98 6789-6793 (2001).
Like all apoptotic cell death, T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated death can be
divided into two phases: an inductive phase and an effector phase. The
effector phase includes a sequence of steps that are common to apoptosis in
many cell types, which, if not interrupted, will lead to cell death. The
induction phase, which often requires the expression of new genes, consists
of a set of signals that activate the effector phase. Outside the thymus,
most, if not all, of the TCR-mediated apoptosis of mature T cells (sometimes
referred to as activation-induced cell death (AICD)) is induced through the
surface antigen Fas pathway: activation through the TCR induces expression
of the Fas (CD95) ligand (FasL); the expression of FasL on either a
neighbouring cell, or on the Fas-bearing cell, induces trimerisation of Fas,
which then initiates a signal-transduction cascade, leading to apoptosis of
the Fas-bearing cell. This commitment stage requires the activation of key
death-inducing enzymes, termed caspases, which act by cleaving proteins that
are essential for cell survival and proliferation [1,2].
Fas is also known to be essential in the death of hyperactivated peripheral
CD4+ cells: in the absence of Fas, mature peripheral T cells do not die, but
the activated cells continue to proliferate, producing cytokines that lead
to grossly enlarged lymph nodes and spleen. Fas belongs to the tumour
necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family of cysteine-rich type I membrane
receptors; its ligand (FasL) is expressed on activated lymphocytes, NK cells,
platelets, certain immune-privileged cells and some tumour cells [1,3].
Defects in the Fas-FasL system are associated with various disease syndromes.
Mice with non-functional Fas or FasL display characteristics of lympho-
proliferative disorder, such as lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and elevated
secretion of IgM and IgG. These mice also secrete anti-DNA autoantibodies
and rheumatoid factor .
TNFACTORR6 (formerly FASRECEPTOR) is a 5-element fingerprint that provides
a signature for tumour necrosis factor 6 (FAS/CD95 receptor family). The
fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 6 sequences: the motifs
were drawn from conserved regions spanning virtually the full alignment
length - motif 3 spans alpha-helix 1 and beta-strand 1; and motif 4
encompasses strand 2. Two iterations on SPTR39_17f were required to reach
convergence, at which point a true set comprising 18 sequences was
identified. Three partial matches were also found: Q9XS60 is a Fas antigen
263-residue splice variant that lacks motif 5; and Q14292 and Q16652 are
Fas soluble proteins that lack the region of sequence bearing motifs 4 and 5.
An update on SPTR55_38f identified a true set comprising 24 sequences,
together with 3 partial matches.
A1Y9B2_MOUSE Fas - Mus musculus (Mouse).
A5D7R0_BOVIN TNFRSF6 protein - Bos taurus (Bovine).
A8WA68_CALJA FAS antigen CD95 - Callithrix jacchus (Common marmoset).
A8WEX9_CALJA FAS antigen CD95 - Callithrix jacchus (Common marmoset).
A9UJX4_HUMAN Fas AMA - Homo sapiens (Human).
FASA_BOVIN FASL RECEPTOR PRECURSOR (APOPTOSIS-MEDIATING SURFACE ANTIGEN FAS) (APO-1 ANTIGEN) (CD95) - Bos taurus (Bovine).
FASA_HUMAN FASL RECEPTOR PRECURSOR (APOPTOSIS-MEDIATING SURFACE ANTIGEN FAS) (APO-1 ANTIGEN) (CD95 ANTIGEN) - Homo sapiens (Human).
FASA_MOUSE FASL RECEPTOR PRECURSOR (APOPTOSIS-MEDIATING SURFACE ANTIGEN FAS) (APO-1 ANTIGEN) (CD95) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
FASA_PIG FASL RECEPTOR PRECURSOR (APOPTOSIS-MEDIATING SURFACE ANTIGEN FAS) (APO-1 ANTIGEN) (CD95) - Sus scrofa (Pig).
FASA_RAT FASL RECEPTOR PRECURSOR (APOPTOSIS-MEDIATING SURFACE ANTIGEN FAS) (APO-1 ANTIGEN) (CD95) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
O97491 FAS PROTEIN - Ovis aries (Sheep).
Q5T9P1_HUMAN Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6) (Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6), isoform CRA_e) (cDNA FLJ77106, highly similar to Homo sapiens Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6) (FAS), transcript variant 1, mRNA) - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q5T9P2_HUMAN Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6) - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q6GT31_MOUSE Fas (TNF receptor superfamily member 6) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
Q9BDN0 FAS ANTIGEN CD95 - Macaca nemestrina (Pig-tailed macaque).
Q9BDN4 FAS ANTIGEN CD95 - Cercocebus torquatus atys (Red-crowned mangabey) (Sooty mangabey).
Q9BDP0 FAS ANTIGEN CD95 - Aotus trivirgatus (Night monkey) (Douroucouli).
Q9BDP2 FAS ANTIGEN CD95 - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque).
Q9GK28 FAS ANTIGEN APO-1/CD95 - Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque).
Q9GK36 FAS ANTIGEN APO-1/CD95 - Macaca assamensis (Assam's macaque) (Assam's monkey).
Q9GL40 FAS ANTIGEN - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque).
Q9TSN4 DEATH RECEPTOR FAS (APO-1/CD95) - Macaca fascicularis (Crab eating macaque) (Cynomolgus monkey).
Q9TV79 B-TYPE FAS ANTIGEN - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit).
Q9XS29 C-TYPE FAS ANTIGEN - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit).
Q5T9P3_HUMAN Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6) - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q861W6_FELCA Fas antigen - Felis silvestris catus (Cat).
Q9XS60 FAS ANTIGEN SPLICED VARIANT - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit).