WORKLIST ENTRIES (1): GABAARRHO1 View alignment Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit signature Type of fingerprint: COMPOUND with 3 elements Links: PRINTS; PR00252 NRIONCHANNEL; PR00253 GABAARECEPTR; PR01670 GABAARRHO PRINTS; PR01672 GABAARRHO2 MIM; 137161 Creation date 13-MAR-2002 1. WHITING, P.J., MCKERNAN, R.M. AND WAFFORD, K.A. Structure and pharmacology of vertebrate GABA(A) receptor subtypes. INT.REV.NEUROBIOL. 38 95-138 (1995). 2. RUDOLPH, U., CRESTANI, F. AND MOHLER, H. GABA(A) receptor subtypes: dissecting their pharmacological functions. TRENDS PHARMACOL.SCI. 22 188-194 (2001). 3. BARNARD, E.A., SKOLNICK, P., OLSEN, R.W., MOHLER, H., SIEGHART, W., BIGGIO, G., BRAESTRUP, C., BATESON, A.N. AND LANGER, S.Z. International Union of Pharmacology: XV. Subtypes of gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptors: classification on the basis of subunit structure and receptor function. PHARMACOL.REV. 50 291-313 (1998). 4. BONNERT, T.P., MCKERNAN, R.M., FARRAR, S., LE BOURDELLES, B., HEAVENS, R.P., SMITH, D.W., HEWSON, L., RIGBY, M.R., SIRINATHSINGHJI, D.J., BROWN, N., WAFFORD, K.A. AND WHITING, P.J. Theta, a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit. PROC.NATL.ACAD.SCI.U.S.A. 96 9891-9896 (1999). 5. ASHCROFT, F.M. GABA(A) receptors. IN ION CHANNELS AND DISEASE, ACADEMIC PRESS, 2000, PP.325-336. 6. PRITCHETT, D.B., SONTHEIMER, H., SHIVERS, B.D., YMER, S., KETTENMANN, H., SCHOFIELD, P.R. AND SEEBERG, P.H. Importance of a novel GABA(A) receptor subunit for benzodiazepine pharmacology. NATURE 338 582-585 (1989). 7. ZHANG, D., PAN, Z.H., AWOBULUYI, M. AND LIPTON, S.A. Structure and function of GABA(C) receptors: a comparison of native versus recombinant receptors. TRENDS PHARMACOL.SCI. 22(3) 121-132 (2001). 8. DREW, C.A., JOHNSTON, G.A. AND WEATHERBY, R.P. Bicuculline-insensitive GABA receptors: studies on the binding of (-)-baclofen to rat cerebellar membranes. NEUROSCI.LETT. 52 317-321 (1984). Gamma-aminobutyric acid type (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). It modulates inhibitory tone by interacting with two classes of receptor: ionotropic type A (GABAA) and metabotropic type B (GABAB) receptors . GABAA receptors are pentameric membrane proteins that operate GABA-gated chloride channels  and belong to the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily . Eight types of receptor subunit have been cloned, with multiple subtypes within some classes: alpha 1-6, beta 1-4, gamma 1-4, delta, epsilon, pi, rho 1-3 and theta [3,4]. Subunits are typically 50-60kDa in size and comprise a long N-terminal extracellular domain; 4 putative transmembrane (TM) domains; and a large cytoplasmic loop connecting the third and fourth TM domains . Amongst family members, the large cytoplasmic loop displays the most divergence in terms of primary structure, the TM domains showing the highest level of sequence conservation . The effects of GABA on GABAA receptors are modulated by a range of therapeutically important drugs, including barbiturates, anaesthetics and benzodiazepines (BZs), which include the widely prescribed drugs librium and valium [1,5]. Furthermore, they are characterised by their sensitivity towards a selective antagonist, bicuculline . A second type of ionotropic GABA receptor has been identified that is insensitive to bicuculline and classical GABAA modulators but has an enhanced affinity for GABA. This receptor was found to be composed principally of rho subunits and was termed 'GABAC' in recognition of its altered pharmacology . Despite this distinction, rho subunits are generally considered to be part of the GABAA family of receptor proteins due to similarities in sequence and topology. Whilst early studies supported the view that rho subunits assembled to form a homopentamer, it has been shown that a mutant rho 1 protein is able to coassemble with GABAA gamma 2 subunits as well as the glycine receptor alpha subunit . Rho subunit mRNA occurs prominently in both human and rat retina , each subunit showing a characteristic pattern of spatial expression. In rat retina, rho 1 mRNA has been detected only in bipolar cells, whereas rho 2 transcripts have been detected in both bipolar and ganglion cells. In retinal tissues, expression of rho 3 mRNA is exclusive to ganglion cells . Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridisation have shown rho transcripts also to be present in other regions of the brain, specifically those involved in visual signal processing, such as the superior colliculus and visual cortex . The gene encoding the rho 1 subunit is located on chromosome six, together with the gene for rho 2. Labelling of rho subunit protein is only observed in cells that express rho 1 mRNA. This finding suggests that either rho 1 has the highest level of expression or coassembly with rho 1 protein is necessary for stable expression of other subunits . GABAARRHO1 is a 3-element fingerprint that provides a signature for GABAA receptor rho 1 subunits. The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 4 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved regions spanning the full alignment length, focusing on those sections that characterise rho 1 subunits but distinguish them from the rest of the GABAA receptor rho subunit family - motifs 1 and 2 lie at the N-terminus; and motif 3 resides within the long cytoplasmic loop connecting TM domains 3 and 4 . A single iteration on SPTR40_18f was required to reach convergence, no further sequences being identified beyond the starting set. SUMMARY INFORMATION 4 codes involving 3 elements 0 codes involving 2 elements COMPOSITE FINGERPRINT INDEX 3| 4 4 4 2| 0 0 0 --+---------------- | 1 2 3 True positives.. GAR1_MOUSE GAR1_RAT GAR1_HUMAN O42157 PROTEIN TITLES GAR1_MOUSE Gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor rho-1 subunit precursor (GA GAR1_RAT Gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor rho-1 subunit precursor (GA GAR1_HUMAN Gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor rho-1 subunit precursor (GA O42157 GABAC RECEPTOR SUBUNIT RHO-1B - Morone americana (White perc
SCAN HISTORY SPTR40_18f 1 300 NSINGLE INITIAL MOTIF SETS GABAARRHO11 Length of motif = 13 Motif number = 1 Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit motif I - 1 PCODE ST INT GWVLAAESTAHWP GAR1_MOUSE 11 11 GWVLAAESTVHWP GAR1_RAT 11 11 GWVLATESRMHWP GAR1_HUMAN 11 11 CLVVIGECRKHKS O42157 13 13 GABAARRHO12 Length of motif = 12 Motif number = 2 Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit motif II - 1 PCODE ST INT QRQRRGAHDDAH GAR1_MOUSE 38 14 QRQRRGAHDDAH GAR1_RAT 38 14 QRQRREVHEDAH GAR1_HUMAN 37 13 RKKRWSAPAETH O42157 26 0 GABAARRHO13 Length of motif = 13 Motif number = 3 Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit motif III - 1 PCODE ST INT NGEKPDRMMVQLT GAR1_MOUSE 411 361 NGEKPDRMMVQLT GAR1_RAT 411 361 NGEKPDRMMVQLT GAR1_HUMAN 410 361 ASEKQERMVVHLS O42157 412 374 FINAL MOTIF SETS GABAARRHO11 Length of motif = 13 Motif number = 1 Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit motif I - 1 PCODE ST INT GWVLAAESTAHWP GAR1_MOUSE 11 11 GWVLAAESTVHWP GAR1_RAT 11 11 GWVLATESRMHWP GAR1_HUMAN 11 11 CLVVIGECRKHKS O42157 13 13 GABAARRHO12 Length of motif = 12 Motif number = 2 Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit motif II - 1 PCODE ST INT QRQRRGAHDDAH GAR1_MOUSE 38 14 QRQRRGAHDDAH GAR1_RAT 38 14 QRQRREVHEDAH GAR1_HUMAN 37 13 RKKRWSAPAETH O42157 26 0 GABAARRHO13 Length of motif = 13 Motif number = 3 Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A (GABAA) receptor rho 1 subunit motif III - 1 PCODE ST INT NGEKPDRMMVQLT GAR1_MOUSE 411 361 NGEKPDRMMVQLT GAR1_RAT 411 361 NGEKPDRMMVQLT GAR1_HUMAN 410 361 ASEKQERMVVHLS O42157 412 374
User query: Display/Full Code "GABAARRHO1"